Thymus daenensis

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Nepetoideae
Genus: Thymus L
Species: Thymus vulgaris L

Plant description

Thyme is a tiny perennial shrub, with a semievergreen groundcover that seldom grows quite 40 cm tall it’s each horizontaland upright habits. The stems become woody with age. Thyme leaves are terribly little, usually 2.5 to 5 mm long and vary significantly in form and hair covering, depending on the variety, with every species having a rather completely different scent. T. vulgaris leaves are oval to rectangular in form and some what fleshy aerial components are used for volatile oil production, principally by steam distillation. The contemporary and dried herb market uses it for cookery functions (Figure 1).

Thyme grows well during a temperate to heat, dry, sunny climate, and wherever the plants don’t seem to be shaded. It desires full sun to grow to its best potential. Thyme doesn’t like excessive wet as a result of its condition it will gets rot diseases. Thyme prefers lightweight, welldrained soils with a pH of 5.0 to 8.0. Thyme species do best in coarse, rough soils that may be unsuitable for several alternative plants.

The dried product should be processed to get rid of the leaves from the stems, and so sieved to get rid of dirt and to provide a consistent product. Many strategies exist from sun to classy driers. The employment of sun-drying strategies leads to poorquality of the volatile oil. Artificial drying strategies permit higher management of product quality. A forced air-flow drier could be a appropriate system to dry better-quality leaves. Thymeshould to be dried at temperatures not up to 40°C to cut back loss of flavor through volatilisation of volatile oil, and to keep up a decent inexperienced color. once drying, the leaves should be separated clear of the stems, sieved and hierarchic. Fresh turn out has got to be clean of foreign material and looking out recent and tender with a decent color and flavour.

There is an International Standard (ISO 6754:1996), prescribing quality necessities for dried thyme. The quality prescribes bound necessities of the finished product. The volatile oil content of the dried herb is a vital issue contributory to the flavour intensity. Whole thyme leaves should contain a minimum of 0.5% essential oil, that equals 5 ml/ kg dried herb, and ground thyme should contain a minimum of 0.2% volatile oil to satisfy the wants. Thyme volatile oil should be hold on in a very cool, dry space till it’s used. Keep it in dark, air-tight glass bottles and don’t expose it to heat or serious metals. Once opened, refrigeration and tightly closing the cap can prolong its shelf-life. Deterioration begins if the liquid is far darker or a lot of viscous than traditional.

Thymus daenensis Celak. is an herb endemic to Iran belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Growing in many parts of Iran, the plant is extensively used in folk medicine. This review was performed to compile phytochemical and pharmacological data of T. daenensis. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scientific Information Database, Embase, IranMedex and Google Scholar were searched for the terms "Thymus daenensis" and "Avishan-e-denaii" up to 1st January 2014. Following reported ethnopharmacological uses, various T. daenensis preparations have been investigated for antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal and immunomodulatory effects in recent studies. Moreover, numerous studies have been published on the composition of the herb's essential oil, focusing either on environmental parameters or preparation methods. Due to its high concentration of thymol, the plant's essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activities on human pathogenic strains. However, comprehensive studies on the toxicity and teratogenicity as well as clinical efficacy of Thymus daenensis are missing.

Antifungal activity of Thymus daenensis and Satureja hortensis essential oils (EOs) (0, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) were evaluated against Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro and in the Food model system (un‐heat and heat‐treated Doogh) during 21 days. In vitro results showed that minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of T. daenensis and S. hortensis oils were 6.25 and 12.5%, respectively. In un‐heat treated samples, both EOs showed a significant inhibitory effects rather than the control group at 25 °C than 4 °C. Treatments containing 100 and 150 ppm of T. daenensis EO on the 21st day and treatment containing 50 ppm of S. hortensis EO on the 15th day had maximum inhibitory effect. No growth was observed in the heat‐treated samples and control group. The findings revealed that both EOs had noticeable antifungal activity and can be considered as a natural preservative in the food industry.

Thyme is a Mediterranean herb with dietary, medicinal, and ornamental uses. The flowers, leaves, and oil of thyme have been used to treat a range of symptoms and complaints.

These include diarrhea, stomach ache, arthritis, and sore throat.

The most common variety is Thymus vulgaris. A wide range of thyme products is available for purchase online.

Fast facts on thyme

  • Thyme is thought to have antibacterial, insecticidal, and possibly antifungal properties.
  • People used thyme throughout history for embalming and to protect from the Black Death.
  • Forms of thyme include fresh and dried herbs and essential oil.

Benefits

Thymol is one of a naturally occurring class of compounds known as biocides.
These are substances that can destroy harmful organisms, such as infectious bacteria.
Used alongside other biocides, such as carvacrol, thyme has strong antimicrobial properties.
One study from 2010 suggests that thymol can reduce bacterial resistance to common drugs, including penicillin.

Killing the tiger mosquito

The tiger mosquito is native to tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia.
Since the 1990s, it has spread around the world, carrying West Nile virus, Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis, dengue fever, and Chikungunya fever.
A team at Chungbuk National University in South Korea reported that a combination of thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol was effective in killing off tiger mosquito larvae.

High blood pressure

Researchers at the University of Belgrade, Serbia, found that an aqueous extract obtained from wild thyme reduced blood pressure in tests on rats.
Rats respond to hypertension in a similar way to people, so the findings might have implications for humans.
More tests are required for the data to prove significant, however.

Foodborne bacterial infections

A team at the Center for Studies of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Portugal, studied the antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a range of aromatic plants, including thyme oil.
They reported that thyme oil, even at low concentrations, showed potential as a natural preservative of food products against several common foodborne bacteria that cause human illness.
A Polish study tested thyme oil and lavender oil, and they that observed that thyme oil was effective against resistant strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas bacteria.


Colon cancer

A study carried out in Lisbon, Portugal, found that extracts of mastic thyme might protect people from colon cancers.

Breast cancer

Researchers in Turkey looked at the effect of wild thyme on breast cancer activity, and specifically how it affected apoptosis, or cell death, and gene-related events in breast cancer cells.
They found that wild thyme caused cell death in breast cancer cells.

Yeast infection

The fungus Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a common cause of yeast infections in the mouth and vagina, a recurring condition called "thrush."
Researchers at the University of Turin, Italy, found that essential oil of thyme significantly enhancedthe destruction of the C. albicans fungus in the human body.

Prolonging the stability of cooking oils

Lipid oxidation is a serious problem during food processing and storage. It can cause food to lose quality, stability, safety, and nutritional value.
Scientists from Warsaw, Poland, examined whether thyme extract might prolong the stability of sunflower oil at different temperatures.
They suggest that thyme might be a potent antioxidant for stabilizing sunflower oil.

video

Common skin problems

Skin problems are common worldwide. In some countries, herbal preparations are important medicines.
A team at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, carried out a study to assess the therapeutic benefits of a 10 percent chamomile extract cream and a 3 percent thyme essential oil antifungal cream for eczema-like lesions.
They noted that full healing occurred in 66.5 percent of people treated with a fungal cream containing thyme essential oil, compared with 28.5 percent of those using a placebo.
Results for the chamomile cream were similar to those for the placebo.

The researchers conclude:
"A 3 percent thyme essential oil cream could represent a relatively economical and easily available opportunity to treat and heal mild to moderate cases of fungal infections."

However, they recommend further research.

History

The ancient Egyptians used thyme as an embalming fluid. In ancient Greece, they used thyme as an incense in temples and added it to bathwater.
The Romans used thyme as a flavoring for cheese and alcoholic beverages. They are also supposedly offered it as a cure people for who were melancholic or shy. The Roman army introduced thyme to the British Isles when they conquered the land.
Hippocrates, who lived around 460 BCE to 370 BCE and is known today as "the father of Western medicine," recommended thyme for respiratory diseases and conditions. People grew thyme in gardens and gathered it in the countryside.
When the Black Death took hold of Europe in the 1340s, people would wear posies of thyme for protection.
Scientific research does not support this specific use but has shown thyme to have a range of medicinal properties that modern people can put to beneficial use.

Forms

People can use the fresh leaves of thyme in teas and in cooking and sometimes place them between layers of linen to protect the fabric from insects.
Thyme's essential oil, usually referred to as "oil of thyme," contains between 20 percent and 60 percent thymol.
Manufacturers extract oil of thyme for a range of uses, including scenting soaps and as an ingredient in deodorant.
People have used oil of thyme as both an antiseptic and an insect repellent. Thymol is a common meat preservative, and olive farmers often combine thymol into the oil that preserves olives in the Mediterranean.
Unlike the fresh leaves, a person cannot consume essential oils by mouth or apply it directly to the skin. Dilute oil of thyme in a carrier oil, such as olive oil.
Click here to shop for an excellent range of thyme products with thousands of customer reviews.
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies thyme essential oils as "generally recognized as safe for their intended use."
However, anyone planning to make a significant change to treatment for a health condition should first discuss this with a physician.

Practical applications

Doogh is a traditional Iranian dairy‐based drink which is the same as other dairy fermented products prone to fungal contamination. As a result, application of chemical and synthetic preservatives is common to control microbial growth and increase the shelf life. But, due to their harmful side effects, much research has been being conducted to find a suitable substitute like plant EOs, as natural preservatives in the food industry. This study assessed the antifungal activity of T. daenensis and S. hortensis EOs and their potential applications in food model system.
The Thymus species are widely used as culinary herbs as well as a traditional herbal medicinal product to treat gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, skin disorders ( Costa et al., 2012;Jarić et al., 2015;Özgen et al., 2011;Pereira et al., 2013;(EMA/HMPC/342334/2013). Various pharmacological studies have proven the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antitussive, expectorant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, carminative, and astringent activities ( Boros et al., 2010;Costa et al., 2012;Jarić et al., 2015;Kindl et al., 2015;Kontogiorgis et al., 2016;Ložienė, 2009;Nabavi et al., 2015;Zarshenas and Krenn, 2015). These health promoting properties of Thymus species have been attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds, triterpenic acids and especially essential oils ( Öztürk, 2015).

9 Health Benefits of Thyme

Thyme is an herb from the mint family that you probably recognize from your spice set. But it’s so much more than an after-thought ingredient.
Its range of use is impressive, and it has over 400 subspecies. Ancient Egyptians used it in their embalming practices, while ancient Greeks used it as incense.
Thanks to its distinctive taste, thyme has remained a culinary staple to this day. But thyme is also fast gaining a reputation for its medicinal qualities, such as its ability to help treat acne and high blood pressure.

It’s about thyme

If you’re tired of buying and trying over-the-counter acne medication with no good results, you may be in luck. Thyme is known for its antibacterial properties and it might have a future as an acne-fighting ingredient.
When thyme is steeped in alcohol for days or weeks, it turns into a solution known as a tincture. Researchers in the U.K. have tested the effects of thyme tinctures on acne.
In the one study done on thyme tincture, the findings were impressive. This natural herb preparation fought pimples better than antiacne products, which included benzoyl peroxide. Time will tell if this remedy is an effective acne treatment.

Thyme to lower blood pressure

Thymus linearis Benth. is a species of thyme found in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A study found that an extract was able to significantly reduce heart rate in rats with high blood pressure, and it was also able to lower their cholesterol.
One sure way to use thyme to help lower your heart rate is to substitute it for salt in your foods.

Thyme to stop coughing

Thyme essential oil, which is obtained from its leaves, is often used as a natural cough remedy. In one study, a combination of thyme and ivy leaves helped to alleviate coughing and other symptoms of acute bronchitis.
Next time you’re faced with a cough or sore throat, try drinking some thyme tea.

Thyme to boost your immunity

Getting all the vitamins your body needs every day can be challenging. Luckily, thyme is packed with vitamin C and is also a good source of vitamin A. If you feel a cold coming on, thyme can help get you back in good health.
Another health benefit of thyme: It’s a good source of copper, fiber, iron, and manganese.

Thyme to disinfect

Mold is a common yet potentially dangerous air pollutant that can lurk in your home. Once you identify it, take the necessary steps to get rid of it once and for all. Thyme oil may be the answer for low mold concentrations.
Essential oil of thyme and thymol hold many fungicidal properties. Research suggests that it can be used as a disinfectant in dwellings where there is a low concentration of mold.

Thyme to get rid of pests

Thymol is also an ingredient in many pesticides — both outdoor and indoor — and is commonly used to target bacteria and viruses, as well as rats, mice, and other animal pests.
A recent study shows that thyme extract can repel mosquitoes, but growing it in your garden isn’t enough. In order to get the best pest fighting results, rub thyme leaves between your hands to release the essential oil.
You can also make homemade repellant by mixing four drops of thyme oil to every teaspoon of olive oil, or mixing five drops for every 2 ounces of water.

Thyme for good smells

Organic and natural skin care products can now be found at most retailers, and many contain thyme.
Thanks to its antiseptic and antifungal properties, it is a common ingredient in mouthwash. Thyme is also a popular ingredient in natural deodorants and is often included in potpourri.

Thyme to boost your mood

Thyme essential oil is often used for aromatic and therapeutic purposes because of its active substance carvacrol.
In a 2013 study, carvacrol was shown to affect neuron activity in ways that boosted the subjects’ feelings of well-being.
So if you use thyme or thyme oil regularly, it might have a positive effect on your feelings and mood.

Thyme for some good food

Thyme is a wonderful ingredient that’s used in cuisines around the world, particularly in France, Italy, and across the Mediterranean.
Thyme is a main ingredient in this cleansing take on pesto sauce, which you can use as a condiment or add to pasta or rice.
Fresh leaves or whole sprigs can be used while preparing meat or poultry. Thyme is also an excellent ingredient to use with fish, like in this heart-healthy white fish recipe.
This whole-wheat macaroni and cheese with mushrooms and thyme is a grownup spin on a childhood favorite, and it’s a great way to add some thyme to your diet.

Medicinal uses

Thyme has been thought of to be antiseptic, antimicrobial, medication, astringent, anthelmintic, medicinal drug, carminative, disinfectant, medicinal drug and tonic. Thyme is incredibly useful in cases of assorted intestinal infections and infestations, like hookworms, ascarids, gram-positive and gram-negative bacterium, fungi and yeasts as well as Candida albicans. Its active constituent, thymol, is active against enterobacteria and cocci bacteria. Thyme may also improve liver functioning, and act as an appetite stimulant. It will be used in treatment of cartilaginous tube, bronchial and urinary infections. Used as a gargle, Thyme is helpful in treatment of laryngitis and inflammation. the main component of the volatile oil of thyme, thymol, is active against enterobacteria and cocci bacteria.
It is used for skin issues like oily skin, sciatica, acne, dermatitis, skin condition and bug bites. In aromatherapy, the distinct types, thymol, ‘red thyme oil’, linalol kind for its terribly light soft action and thuyanol for antiviral properties are used. A corrected product, ‘white thyme oil’ is also used, and it’s milder on the skin. Applied to the skin, thyme relieves bites and stings, and relieves neuralgy and rheumatic aches and pains.

Anti Inflamattory Property

Thymus vulgaris oil is a combination of monoterpenes. the most compounds of this oil are the natural terpenoid thymol and its phenol chemical compound carvacrol [3,4] that have antioxidative, antimicrobial, medicinal drug, antitussive, antispasmodic, and antibacterial effects [5,6]. Terpenoids, flavonoid aglycones, flavonoids glycosides, and synthetic resin acids were additionally found in Thymus spp.

Anti bacterial activity

The essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris L. harvested at 4 biological process stages were evaluated for their biological activity and chemical components. The thyme volatile oils were analysed for their inhibition effects against 9 strains of gram-negative bacteria and 6 strains of gram-positive bacteria. The bioimpedance methodology was chosen for finding out the antibacterial activity of the essential oils and also the parameter chosen for outlining and quantifying the antibacterial activity of the thyme oils was the detection time. The plate counting technique was used to studying the inhibitory effect by direct exposure. All the thyme essential oils examined had a significant bacteriostatic activity against the microorganisms tested. This activity was additional marked against the gram-positive bacteria. The oil from thyme fully flower was the foremost effective at stopping the growth of the microorganism species examined. The oils tested were conjointly shown to possess smart antibacterial activity by direct contact, that gave the impression to be a lot of marked against the gram-negative microorganism. some a number of of the species were capable of recovering a minimum of 50% of their metabolic function once contact with the inhibitor, whereas most of the strains were shown to have been inactivated almost completely [7].

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil

The essential oil from T. vulgaris showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (56.53%) and low contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (28.69%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (5.04%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.84%) [8]. The predominant compound among the essential oil components was thymol (51.34%) while the amount of all other components of the oil was less than 19%.

Anti viral property

Silke Nolkemper et al. conducted an experiment with aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). Extracts from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) has shown inhibitory activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2) and an acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1 was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells in a plaque reduction assay [9].

Antioxidant properties

An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of different molecules. oxidation is a chemical process that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. oxidation reactions will produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals will begin chain reactions. once the chain reaction happens in a cell, it will cause damage or death to the cell. Antioxidants stops these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit different oxidation reactions.
The leafy parts of thyme and its oil are utilized in foods for the flavor, aroma and preservation and additionally in folk medicines. El-Nekeety conducted an experiment to work out the elements of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and to evaluate the protecting effects of this oil against aflatoxininduce oxidative stress in rats. The results indicated that the oil contains Carvarcrol (45 mg/g), Thymol (24.7 mg/g), β-Phellandrene (9.7 mg/g), essential oil (4.1 mg/g), Humuline (3.1 mg/g), α-Phellandrene (2.3 mg/g) and Myrcene (2.1 mg/g) [10]. However, α and β-pinene, Myrcene, α-thyjone, Tricyclene, 1, 8-cineole, and β-sabinene were found in very lower concentrations. Treatment with aflatoxins alone disturbs lipid profile in blood serum, decreases total antioxidant capability, increase creatinine, uric acid and nitric oxide in blood serum and lipid peroxidation in liver and excretory organ attended with a sever histological changes within the liver tissues. The oil alone at the 2 tested doses didn’t induce any important changes within the biochemical parameters or the histological image. The combined treatment showed important enhancements altogether tested parameters and histological footage within the liver tissues. Moreover, this improvement was additional pronounced within the cluster received the high dose of the oil.

Insecticidal activity

The insecticidal activity of thyme volatile oil, thymol and carvacrol was evaluated in laboratory against completely different larval stages of lesser mealworm. The sooner and later larval stages were reared on diets containing one or two acetone solutions of tested compounds. Insecticidal activity of thyme volatile oil and pure monoterpenes against A. diaperinus larvae relied on the dose and age of larvae. the growth of younger larvae was considerably affected, whereas those of older larval stage was less influenced and only by pure oil components. In young larvae the application 1% thyme oil, thymol and carvacrol, caused mortality of 50.0, 86.67 and 85%, respectively [11].

Essential Oil Composition of Thymus daenensis Celak. During its Phenological Cycle

In order to evaluate the effect of phenological stage on quantitative and qualitative variations in the content and composition of Thymus daenensis Celak essential oil, plant material has been collected from nature in Malayer city at four growth stages (vegetative stage, budding stage, flowering stage and seed bearing stage). Essential oil was extracted from air dried plants by hydrodistillation method for 3 hours. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC and GC-MS. Results indicated that the maximum essential oil yield (3.4 %)was obtained in flowering stage. The major components of essential oil in all growth stages were thymol, α-terpinene, p-cymene, methyl carvacrol and α-Thujene. The higher percentage of thymol (73.8 %)was obtained in flowering stage, α-terpinene (9.59 %) in vegetative stage, p-cymene (9.0 %) and Methyl carvacrol (4.9 %) in seed bearing stage and α-thujene (1.42 %) in budding stage.
(PDF) Essential Oil Composition of Thymus daenensis Celak. During its Phenological Cycle. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261575468_Essential_Oil_Composition_of_Thymus_daenensis_Celak_During_its_Phenological_Cycle [accessed Sep 12 2018].

Highlights

  • Wild and cultivated T. daenensis and cultivated T. vulgaris were compared
  • Thymol was the dominant compound in oils of T. daenensis and T. vulgaris.
  • T. daenensis and T. vulgaris showed variations in some chemical constituents.
  • Cultivation of T. daenensis proved to be superior in oil and thymol contents.
  • Wild growing of T. daenensis produced highest carvacrol.

Order Now